State of Smoking and Health in Türkiye - Foundation for a Smoke-Free World

state of smoking and health in Türkiye

This page was last edited on: February 9, 2024 at 3:26 pm

smoking rate

28.7% (2023) [1]

TOBACCO USE RATE

30.2% (2023) [1]

TOBACCO USE AND TRENDS

  • In 2023, an estimated 30.2% or approximately 20 million adults aged 15 years and over in Turkiye were using tobacco products. This positions Türkiye as the 9th globally and the 2nd   in the WHO European Region in terms of the number of tobacco users.
    • Of tobacco users, 95% or about 19 million adults (13 million male and 6  million female) were cigarette users.

  • Demand for cigarettes increased by 5.5% from 63.8 packs per capita in 2010 to 67.3 packs per capita in 2022.

Nicotine Alternatives

  • There are no reduced-risk nicotine tools legally available in Türkiye.

HEALTH AND ECONOMIC BURDEN FROM TOBACCO USE

  • In 2019, it is estimated that tobacco was the highest risk factor that drove the most death and disability combined in Türkiye.

  • Tobacco was responsible for an estimated 96,135 deaths constituting about one-third (32%)  of the total  
    • Of tobacco deaths, 90 thousand or 90% were due to smoking and 15 thousand or 15% from secondhand smoke.

  • In 2019, the top 10 causes of the most deaths in Türkiye included Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) ranking 1st, Stroke ranking 3rd, Lung Cancer ranking 3rd, and COPD ranking 4th.
    • Tobacco was responsible for 25 thousand or 27% of all IHD deaths, 9 thousand or 19% of all Stroke deaths, 23 thousand or 88% of all Lung Cancer deaths, and 17 thousand or 75% of all COPD deaths in Türkiye.

  • Tobacco use caused an estimated loss of 2.8 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)- which was about 32% of total DALYs where tobacco accounts 226 thousand DALYs for Stroke, 567 thousand DALYs for Lung Cancer, 444 thousand DALYs for COPD, and 25 thousand DALYs for IHD.

REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT and economics

Public Health Commitment
  • Türkiye ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2005 and the WHO Illicit Trade Protocol in 2018.

  • Implemented Graphical Health Warnings (GHWs) on combustible cigarettes (CCs) in 2010 and Plain Packaging (PP) regulations on combustible cigarettes (CCs) in 2019.
    • GHWs cover 85% of the front and 100% of the back surface areas of CCs.
Diversity of Tobacco Market
  • In 2020, HTPs and e-cigarettes with or without nicotine, are banned in Türkiye.
Taxation Policy
  • In 2022, the total tax rate on the retail prices of a pack of cigarettes was 80.8%.

  • In 2023, the retail price of a pack of cigarettes was TRY 29, with 66.8% of the price being excise tax.

  • Although HTPs are banned, they are still marketed and sold online by Philip Morris International (PMI) and priced at TRY28/pack of 20 sticks. Since they are not included in the tax code, no excise or sales tax is applied to these products.
  • Türkiye enforces comprehensive smoking and advertising bans on CCs, but the compliance levels appear unclear.
Age Restrictions
  • Tobacco products cannot be sold to individuals younger than 18 years of age.
Illicit Cigarette Trade
  • Estimated figures indicate that illicit trade fluctuated between 10% and 20% between 2008 and 2016 and has been consistently declining with illicit cigarette trade,  peaking in 2012 at 29% of the cigarette market and gradually declining to 2.3% in 2022.

TOBACCO PRODCTION AND DIVERSIFICATION

  • Türkiye is not among the top unmanufactured tobacco producers in the globe. In 2022, Türkiye produced approximately 82.2 thousand tons of unmanufactured tobacco, ranking as the 13th largest producer with a production share of about 1.4% of the global production of 5.8 million tons. This represents a significant increase of 55.1% compared to the  53.0 thousand tons produced in 2010.

  • Türkiye utilized an estimated 75.1 thousand hectares of land to harvest tobacco in 2022, which is a reduction of 7.7% compared to 2010 (FAOSTAT)

As research findings become available that are inclusive of additional gender identities, the Foundation will update the information presented. 

[1] Source: World Health Organization: Non-age-standardized estimates of current tobacco use, tobacco smoking and cigarette smoking (Tobacco control: Monitor) and The World Bank’s Population Estimates and Projections.

Explanation: This estimate is calculated by applying the WHO’s estimated percentage of tobacco smokers for 2023 to the World Bank’s projected population figures of the same year for 15 years and older. These figures should be used with caution, as they do not account for the 95% credible interval around the estimate.

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